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Intramural

Robert R. McCrae, Ph.D. Robert R. McCrae, Ph.D., Senior Investigator
Personality, Stress and Coping Section
Laboratory of Personality and Cognition

E-mail: mccraej@mail.nih.gov

Education:

    1971 - B.A., in philosphy, Michigan State University
    1974 - M.A., in personality psychology, Boston University
    1976 - Ph.D., in personality psychology, Boston University

Brief Chronology of Employment:

    1974-1976 Instructor, Department of Psychology, Boston University

    1975-1976 Research Assistant, Personality Research Program, Normative Aging Study, VA Outpatient Clinic, Boston, MA

    1976-1978 Project Director, Co-Principal Investigator, Smoking and Personality Grant, University of Massachusetts at Boston

    1978-1983 Senior Staff Fellow, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland

    1983-Date Research Psychologist, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland

Societies:

    American Psychological Association (Divisions 5, 8, and 20)
          Division 20 Program Committee Chair, 1986
          Division 20 Fellowship Committee Chair, 1990
          Division 5 Program Committee Chair, 1992
    Gerontological Society of America
    International Society for the Study of Individual Differences
    Society for Personality Assessment
    American Psychological Society

Honors and Other Special Scientific Recognition:

    1967, National Merit Scholar
    1971, Woodrow Wilson Nominee
    1984, Fellow, American Psychological Association (Division 20)
    1991, Fellow, American Psychological Society
    1992, Fellow, Gerontological Society of America
    2006, Fellow, Society for Personality Assessment

Other Academic Activities:

    1979 - present Member, Baltimore City Hospitals/Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center Institutional Review Board for Human Subjects Research
    1981 - 1982 Editorial Board, Journal of Gerontology
    1984 - 1985 Editorial Board, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
    1984 - present Editorial Board, Experimental Aging Research
    1987 - 1991 Editorial Board, Journal of Personality
    1988 - 1991 Editorial Board, Psychology and Aging
    1989 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
    1991 - 1996 Associate Editor, Journal of Personality
    1994 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Reseach in Personality
    1995 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Aging and Health
    1996 - present Editorial Board, European Journal of Personality
    1997 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
    1999 - 2004 Associate Editor, Personality and Social Psychology Review
    2003 - present Editorial Board, Psychological Assessment
    2005 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Individual Differences
    2007 - present Editorial Board, Social and Personality Psychology Compass

Bibliography:

  1. Costa P.T., Fozard J.L., McCrae R.R., and Bosse R.: Relations of age and personality dimensions to cognitive ability factors. Journal of Gerontology 31: 663-669, 1976.

  2. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Age differences in personality structure: A cluster analytic approach. Journal of Gerontology 31: 564-570, 1976.

  3. McCrae R.R., Bartone P.T., and Costa P.T.: Age, anxiety, and self-reported health. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 7: 49-58, 1976.

  4. Costa P.T., Fozard J.L., and McCrae R.R.: Personological interpretation of factors from the Strong Vocational Interest Blank scales. Journal of Vocational Behavior 10: 231-243, 1977.

  5. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Age differences in personality structure revisited: Studies in validity, stability, and change. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 8: 261-275, 1977.

  6. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Psychiatric symptom dimensions in the Cornell Medical Index among normal adult males. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33: 941-946, 1977.

  7. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: [Letter to the Editor]. Journal of Gerontology 33: 4, 1978.

  8. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Objective personality assessment. In: M. Storandt, I. Siegler, and M.F. Elias (Eds.): The clinical psychology of aging. New York: Plenum, 1978: 119-143.

  9. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., and Bosse R.: Anxiety, extraversion and smoking. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 17: 269-273, 1978.

  10. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Functional age: A conceptual and empirical critique. In: S.G. Haynes, and M. Feinleib (Eds.): Second Conference on the Epidemiology of Aging. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, NIH Publication No. 80-969, 1980: 23-46.

  11. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: Happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38: 668-678, 1980.

  12. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Somatic complaints in males as a function of age and neuroticism: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 3: 245-257, 1980.

  13. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Still stable after all these years: Personality as a key to some issues in adulthood and old age. In: P. Baltes, and O.G. Brim (Eds.): Lifespan development and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1980: 65-102.

  14. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R., Andres R., and Tobin J.D.: Hypertension, somatic complaints and personality. In: M.F. Elias, and D.H.P. Streeten (Eds.): Hypertension and cognitive processes. Mt. Desert, ME: Beech-Hill Publishers, 1980: 95-110.

  15. Costa P.T., McCrae R.R., and Arenberg D.: Enduring dispositions in adult males. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38: 793-800, 1980.

  16. Costa P.T., McCrae R.R., and Bosse R.: Smoking motive factors: A review and replication. International Journal of the Addictions 15: 537-549, 1980.

  17. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Openness to experience and ego level in Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test: Dispositional contributions to developmental models of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39: 1179-1190, 1980.

  18. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr., and Arenberg D.: Constancy of adult personality structure in males: longitudinal, cross-sectional and times-of-measurement analyses. Journal of Gerontology 35: 877-883, 1980.

  19. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Stress, smoking motives, and psychological well-being: The illusory benefits of smoking. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy 3: 125-150, 1981.

  20. Costa P.T., McCrae R.R., and Norris A.H.: Personal adjustment to aging: Longitudinal prediction from neuroticism and extraversion. Journals of Gerontology 36: 78-85, 1981.

  21. McCrae R.R.: Are stress questionnaires stressful? IRB: Rev. Hum. Subjects Res 4: 1-2, 1981.

  22. Costa P.T., Fleg J.L., McCrae R.R., and Lakatta E.G.: Neuroticism, coronary artery disease, and chest pain complaints: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Experimental Aging Research 8: 37-44, 1982.

  23. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: An approach to the attribution of aging, period, and cohort effects. Psychological Bulletin 92: 238-250, 1982.

  24. McCrae R.R.: Age differences in the use of coping mechanisms. Journal of Gerontology 37: 454-460, 1982.

  25. McCrae R.R.: Consensual validation of personality traits: Evidence from self-reports and ratings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43: 293-303, 1982.

  26. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: Aging, the life course, and models of personality. In: T. Field (Ed.): Review of human development. New York: Wiley, 1982: 602-613.

  27. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Self-concept and the stability of personality: Cross-sectional comparisons of self-reports and ratings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43: 1282-1292, 1982.

  28. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Contribution of personality research to an understanding of stress and aging. Marriage and Family Review 6: 157-173, 1983.

  29. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R., and Arenberg D.: Recent longitudinal research on personality and aging. In: K.W. Schaie (Ed.): Longitudinal studies of adult development. New York: Guilford Press, 1983: 222-265.

  30. McCrae R.R.: Extraversion is not a filter, Neuroticism is not an outcome: A reply to Lawton. Experimental Aging Research 9: 73-76, 1983.

  31. McCrae R.R.: [Review of Men at midlife]. Journal of Gerontology 38: 250, 1983.

  32. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Joint factors in self-reports and ratings: Neuroticism, extraversion and openness to experience. Personality and Individual Differences 4: 245-255, 1983.

  33. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Psychological maturity and subjective well-being: Toward a new synthesis. Developmental Psychology 19: 243-248, 1983.

  34. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Social desirability scales: More substance than style. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 51: 882-888, 1983.

  35. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Personality as a life-long determinant of psychological well-being. In: C. Malatesta, and C. Izard (Eds.): Affective processes in adult development and aging. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1984: 141-150.

  36. Costa P.T., McCrae R.R., and Holland J.L.: Personality and vocational interests in an adult sample. Journal of Applied Psychology 69: 390-400, 1984.

  37. McCrae R.R.: Situational determinants of coping responses: Loss, threat, and challenge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46: 919-928, 1984.

  38. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr. Emerging lives, enduring dispositions: Personality in adulthood. Boston: Little, Brown; 1984.

  39. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Personality is transcontextual: A reply to Veroff. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 10: 175-179, 1984.

  40. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Concepts of functional or biological age: A critical review. In: R. Andres, E. Bierman, and W. Hazzard (Eds.): Principles of geriatric medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985: 141-149.

  41. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Concurrent validation after 20 years: The implications of personality stability for its assessment. In: J.N. Butcher, and C.D. Spielberger (Eds.): Advances in personality assessment (Vol. 4). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1985: 31-54.

  42. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Hypochondriasis, neuroticism, and aging: When are somatic complaints unfounded? American Psychologist 40: 19-28, 1985.

  43. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R. The NEO Personality Inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc; 1985.

  44. Costa P.T., Jr., Zonderman A.B., and McCrae R.R.: Longitudinal course of social support in adulthood and old age. In: I.G. Sarason, and B.R. Sarason (Eds.): Social support: Theory, research, and applications. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1985: 137-154.

  45. Costa P.T., Zonderman A.B., McCrae R.R., and Williams R.B.: Content and comprehensiveness in the MMPI: An item factor analysis in a normal adult sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48: 925-933, 1985.

  46. McCrae R.R.: [Reviews of Defining Issues Test and Leadership and Self-development Scale]. In: J.V. Mitchell, Jr. (Ed.): Ninth mental measurements yearbook (Vol. 1). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

  47. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Comparison of EPI and psychoticism scales with measures of the five-factor model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences 6: 587-597, 1985.

  48. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: [Letter to the Editor]. Journal of Gerontology 40: 127, 1985.

  49. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: Openness to experience. In: R. Hogan, and W. Jones (Eds.): Perspectives in personality: Theory, measurement, and interpersonal dynamics. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1985: 145-172.

  50. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: Personality, stress, and coping processes in aging men and women. In: R. Andres, E. Bierman, and W. Hazzard (Eds.): Principles of geriatric medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985: 141-150.

  51. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: "Social desirability and the measurement of psychological well-being in elderly persons": Comment. Journal of Gerontology 40: 127, 1985.

  52. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Updating Norman's "adequacy taxonomy": Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and in questionnaires. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49: 710-721, 1985.

  53. Costa P.T., Busch C.M., Zonderman A.B., and McCrae R.R.: Correlations of MMPI factor scales with measures of the five factor model of personality. Journal of Personality Assessment 50: 640-650, 1986.

  54. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Age, personality, and the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 23: 115-125, 1986.

  55. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Cross-sectional studies of personality in a national sample: I. Development and validation of survey measures. Psychology and Aging 1: 140-143, 1986.

  56. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Major contributions to the psychology of personality. In: S.C. Modgil (Ed.): Hans Eysenck: Searching for a scientific basis for human behavior. Barcombe Lewes Sussex, England: Falmer, 1986: 63-72, 86, 87.

  57. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Personality stability and its implications for clinical psychology. Special Issue: Personality assessment in the 80's: Issues and advances. Clinical Psychology Review 6: 407-423, 1986.

  58. Costa P.T., Zonderman A.B., McCrae R.R., and Williams R.B.: Cynicism and paranoid alienation in the Cook and Medley HO Scale. Psychosomatic Medicine 48: 283-285, 1986.

  59. McCrae R.R.: Well-being scales do not measure social desirability. Journal of Gerontology 41: 390-392, 1986.

  60. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Clinical assessment can benefit from recent advances in personality psychology. American Psychologist 41: 1001-1003, 1986.

  61. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Personality, coping, and coping effectiveness in an adult sample. Journal of Personality 54: 385-405, 1986.

  62. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., and Busch C.M.: Evaluating comprehensiveness in personality systems: The California Q -Set and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality 54: 430-446, 1986.

  63. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: The case for personality stability. In: G.L. Maddox, and E.W. Busse (Eds.): Aging: The universal human experience. Selected papers from the Symposia of the XIIIth Congress of the International Association of Gerontology. New York: Springer, 1987: 418-431.

  64. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Neuroticism, somatic complaints, and disease: Is the bark worse than the bite? Special Issue: Personality and physical health. Journal of Personality 55: 299-316, 1987.

  65. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: On the need for longitudinal evidence and multiple measures in behavioral-genetic studies of adult personality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10: 22-23, 1987.

  66. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Personality assessment in psychosomatic medicine. Value of a trait taxonomy. In: G.A. Fava, and T.N. Wise (Eds.): Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine: Vol. 17. Research paradigms in Psychosomatic Medicine. Basil: Karger, 1987: 71-82.

  67. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Role of neuroticism in the perception and presentation of chest pain symptoms and coronary artery disease. In: J.W. Elias and P.H. Marshall (Eds.): Cardiovascular disease and behavior . New York: Hemisphere, 1987: 39-66.

  68. Costa P.T., McCrae R.R., and Zonderman A.B.: Environmental and dispositional influences on well-being: Longitudinal follow-up of an American national sample. British Journal of Psychology 78: 299-306, 1987.

  69. Costa P.T., Stone S.V., McCrae R.R., Dembroski T.M., and et al.: Hostility, aggreeableness-antagonism, and coronary heart disease. Holistic Medicine 2: 161-167, 1987.

  70. Costa P.T., Zonderman A.B., McCrae R.R., Cornoni Huntley J., and et al.: Longitudinal analyses of psychological well-being in a national sample: Stability of mean levels. Journal of Gerontology 42: 50-55, 1987.

  71. McCrae R.R.: Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52: 1258-1265, 1987.

  72. McCrae R.R.: [Entries on "Introversion," "Neuroticism," "Self-Concept," and "Stress and Stressors"]. In: G.L. Maddox (Ed.): Encyclopedia of aging. New York: Springer, 1987.

  73. McCrae R.R., Arenberg D., and Costa P.T.: Declines in divergent thinking with age: Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-sequential analyses. Psychology and Aging 2: 130-137, 1987.

  74. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52: 81-90, 1987.

  75. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: From catalog to classification: Murray's needs and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55: 258-265, 1988.

  76. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Measures and markers of biological aging: "A great clamoring . . . of fleeting significance." Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 7: 211-214, 1988.

  77. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Personality in adulthood: A six-year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54: 853-863, 1988.

  78. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Age, personality, and the spontaneous self-concept. Journals of Gerontology 43: S177-185, 1988.

  79. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Do parental influences matter? A reply to Halverson. Journal of Personality 56: 445-449, 1988.

  80. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Psychological resilience among widowed men and women: A 10-year follow-up of a national sample. Journal of Social Issues 44: 129-142, 1988.

  81. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Recalled parent-child relations and adult personality. Journal of Personality 56: 417-434, 1988.

  82. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R. The NEO-PI/NEO-FFI manual supplement. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc; 1989.

  83. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Personality continuity and the changes of adult life. In: M. Storandt, and G.R. VandenBos (Eds.): The adult years: Continuity and change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1989: 45-77.

  84. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Personality, stress, and coping: Some lessons from a decade of research. In: K.S. Markides, and C.L. Cooper (Eds.): Aging, stress and health. New York: Wiley, 1989: 267-283.

  85. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R., and Dembroski T.M.: Agreeableness versus antagonism: Explication of a potential risk factor for CHD. In: A. Siegman, and T.M. Dembroski (Eds.): In search of coronary-prone behavior: Beyond Type A. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989: 41-63.

  86. McCrae R.R.: Age differences and changes in the use of coping mechanisms. Journals of Gerontology 44: P161-P169, 1989.

  87. McCrae R.R.: Why I advocate the five-factor model: Joint analyses of the NEO-PI and other instruments. In: D.M. Buss, and N. Cantor (Eds.): Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.

  88. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: Different points of view: Self-reports and ratings in the assessment of personality. In: J.P. Forgas, and M.J. Innes (Eds.): Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1989: 429-439.

  89. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: More reasons to adopt the five-factor model. Special Issue: Children and their development: Knowledge base, research agenda, and social polic. American Psychologist 44: 451-452, 1989.

  90. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator from the perspective of the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Personality 57: 17-40, 1989.

  91. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Rotation to maximize the construct validity of factors in the NEO Personality Inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research 24: 107-124, 1989.

  92. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: The structure of interpersonal traits: Wiggins's circumplex and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56: 586-595, 1989.

  93. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Dahlstrom W.G., Barefoot J.C., and et al.: A caution on the use of the MMPI K-correction in research on psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatic Medicine 51: 58-65, 1989.

  94. Zonderman A.B., Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Depression as a risk for cancer morbidity and mortality in a nationally representative sample. JAMA Journal of the American Medical Association 262: 1191-1195, 1989.

  95. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Personality and aging. In: W.R. Hazzard, R. Andres, E.L. Bierman, and J.P. Blass (Eds.): Principles of geriatric medicine and gerontology. (2th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990: 101-107.

  96. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Personality Disorders 4: 362-371, 1990.

  97. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Personality: Another "hidden factor" in stress research. Psychological Inquiry 1: 22-24, 1990.

  98. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R., and Locke B.Z.: Personality factors. In: J. Cornoni-Huntley, R.R. Huntley, and J.J. Feldman (Eds.): Health status and well-being of the elderly: National Health and Nutrition Examination I-Epidemiologic Follow-up Survey. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990: 210-220.

  99. Costa P.T., Zonderman A.B., and McCrae R.R.: "Cancer and psychosocial traits, continued": Reply. JAMA 263: 514, 1990.

  100. Costa P.T., Jr., Zonderman A.B., and McCrae R.R.: Personality, defense, coping and adaptation in older adulthood. In: E.M. Cummings, A.L. Greene, and K.H. Karraker (Eds.): Lifespan developmental psychology, Vol. 11: Perspective on stress and coping. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990: 277-293.

  101. McCrae R.R.: Controlling neuroticism in the measurement of stress. Special Issue: II-IV. Advances in measuring life stress. Stress Medicine 6: 237-241, 1990.

  102. McCrae R.R.: Traits and trait names: How well is Openness represented in natural languages? Special Issue: Personality language. European Journal of Personality 4: 119-129, 1990.

  103. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr. Personality in adulthood. New York: Guilford; 1990.

  104. Siegler I.C., Zonderman A.B., Barefoot J.C., Williams R.B., Jr., Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Predicting personality in adulthood from college MMPI scores: implications for follow-up studies in psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatic Medicine 52: 644-652, 1990.

  105. Costa P.T., McCrae R.R., and Dye D.A.: Facet scales for agreeableness and conscientiousness: A revision of the NEO Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 887-898, 1991.

  106. McCrae R.R.: The five-factor model and its assessment in clinical settings. Special Series: Clinical use of the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Personality Assessment 57: 399-414, 1991.

  107. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Adding Liebe und Arbeit : The full five-factor model and well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17: 227-232, 1991.

  108. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: The NEO Personality Inventory: Using the Five-Factor Model in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development 69: 367-372, 1991.

  109. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Response to Dolliver. Journal of Counseling and Development 69: 375-376, 1991.

  110. Piedmont R.L., McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Adjective Check List scales and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60: 630-637, 1991.

  111. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: "`Normal' personality inventories in clinical assessment: General requirements and the potential for using the NEO Personality Inventory": Reply. Special Section: Assessing personality characteristics in clinical settings. Psychological Assessment 4: 20-22, 1992.

  112. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: The five-factor model of personality and its relevance to personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders 6: 343-359, 1992.

  113. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences 13: 653-665, 1992.

  114. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: "Four ways five factors are not basic": Reply. Personality and Individual Differences 13: 861-865, 1992.

  115. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Multiple uses for longitudinal personality data. Special Issue: Longitudinal research and personality. European Journal of Personality 6: 85-102, 1992.

  116. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO Personality Inventory. Special Section: Assessing personality characteristics in clinical settings. Psychological Assessment 4: 5-13, 1992.

  117. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1992.

  118. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Trait psychology comes of age. In: T.B. Sonderegger (Ed.): Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Psychology and aging. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.

  119. McCrae R.R.: Editor's introduction to Tupes and Christal. Journal of Personality 60: 217-219, 1992.

  120. McCrae R.R.: Situational determinants of coping. In: B.N. Carpenter (Ed.): Personal coping: Theory, research, and applications. New York: Praeger, 1992.

  121. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Discriminant validity of NEO-PIR facet scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement 52: 229-237, 1992.

  122. McCrae R.R., and John O.P.: An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Special Issue: The five-factor model: Issues and applications. Journal of Personality 60: 175-215, 1992.

  123. McCrae R.R.E.: The five-factor model: Issues and applications [Special Issue]. Journal of Personality 60: , 1992.

  124. Piedmont R.L., McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: An assessment of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule from the perspective of the five-factor model. Journal of Personality Assessment 58: 67-78, 1992.

  125. Bergeman C.S., Chipuer H.M., Plomin R., Pedersen N.L., McClearn G.E., Nesselroade J.R., Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Genetic and environmental effects on openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness: an adoption/twin study. Journal of Personality 61: 159-79, 1993.

  126. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Bullish on personality psychology. The Psychologist 6: 302-303, 1993.

  127. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Ego development and trait models of personality. Psychological Inquiry 4: 20-23, 1993.

  128. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Psychological research in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie 26: 138-141, 1993.

  129. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Psychological stress and coping in old age. In: L. Goldberger, and S. Bresznitz (Eds.): Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects. (2th ed). New York: Free Press, 1993: 403-412.

  130. McCrae R.R.: Agreement of personality profiles across observers. Multivariate Behavioral Research 28: 25-40, 1993.

  131. McCrae R.R.: Curiouser and curiouser! Modifications of a paradoxical theory of personality coherence. Psychological Inquiry 4: 300-303, 1993.

  132. McCrae R.R.: Moderated analyses of longitudinal personality stability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65: 577-585, 1993.

  133. McCrae R.R.: Openness to experience as a basic dimension of personality. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 13: 39-55, 1993.

  134. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., and Piedmont R.L.: Folk concepts, natural language, and psychological constructs: The California Psychological Inventory and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality 61: 1-26, 1993.

  135. Zonderman A.B., Herbst J.H., Schmidt C., Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Depressive symptoms as a nonspecific, graded risk for psychiatric diagnoses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 102: 544-552, 1993.

  136. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Depression as an enduring disposition. In: L.S. Schneider, C.F. Reynolds, III., B.D. Lebowitz, and A.J. Friedhoff (Eds.): Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life: Results of the NIH Consensus Development Conference. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1994: 155-167.

  137. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Personality assessment. In: V.S. Ramachandran (Ed.): Encyclopedia of human behavior. San Diego: Academic Press, 1994: 453-460.

  138. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: "Set like plaster?": Evidence for the stability of adult personality. In: T. Heatherton, and J. Weinberger (Eds.): Can personality change? Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1994: 21-40.

  139. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Stability and change in personality from adolescence through adulthood. In: C.F. Halverson, G.A. Kohnstamm, and R.P. Martin (Eds.): The developing structure of temperament and personality from infancy to adulthood. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994: 139-150.

  140. Costa P.T., Metter E.J., and McCrae R.R.: Personality stability and its contribution to successful aging. Meeting of the Boston Society for Gerontologic Psychiatry Inc: The psychology of successful aging (1992, Boston, Massachusetts). Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 27: 41-59, 1994.

  141. McCrae R.R.: The counterpoint of personality assessment: Self-reports and observer ratings. Assessment 1: 159-172, 1994.

  142. McCrae R.R.: New goals for trait psychology. Psychological Inquiry 5: 148-153, 1994.

  143. McCrae R.R.: Openness to Experience: Expanding the boundaries of Factor V. Special Issue: The fifth of the Big Five. European Journal of Personality 8: 251-272, 1994.

  144. McCrae R.R.: Psychopathology from the perspective of the five-factor model. In: S. Strack, and M. Lorr (Eds.): Differentiating normal and abnormal personality. New York: Springer, 1994.

  145. McCrae R.R.: A reformulation of Axis II: Personality and personality-related problems. In: P.T. Costa, Jr., and T.A. Widiger (Eds.): Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1994.

  146. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Does Lorr's Interpersonal Style Inventory measure the five-factor model? Personality and Individual Differences 16: 195-197, 1994.

  147. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: The paradox of parental influence: Understanding retrospective studies of parent-child relations and adult personality. In: C. Perris, W.A. Arrindell, and M. Eisemann (Eds.): Parenting and psychopathology. New York: Wiley, 1994: 107-125.

  148. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: The stability of personality: Observation and evaluations. Current Directions in Psychological Science 3: 173-175, 1994.

  149. Trull T.J., and McCrae R.R.: A five-factor perspective on personality disorder research. In: P.T. Costa, Jr., and T.A. Widiger (Eds.): Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1994.

  150. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Design and analysis of aging studies. In: E.J. Masoro (Ed.): Handbook of physiology-aging. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995: 25-36.

  151. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Domains and facets: Hierarchical personality assessment using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment 64: 21-50, 1995.

  152. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Primary traits of Eysenck's P-E-N system: Three- and five-factor solutions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69: 308-317, 1995.

  153. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin 117: 216-220, 1995.

  154. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Theories of personality and psychopathology: Approaches derived from philosophy and psychology. In: H.I. Kaplan, and B.J. Sadock (Eds.): Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. (6th ed). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1995: 507-519.

  155. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R., and Kay G.G.: Persons, places, and personality: Career assessment using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Career Assessment 3: 123-139, 1995.

  156. McCrae R.R.: A book in need of a sequel. [Review of Personality, social skills, and psychopathology: An individual differences approach]. Contemporary Psychology 40: 1170-1171, 1995.

  157. McCrae R.R.: [Entries on "Anxiety" and "Personality"]. In: G.L. Maddox (Ed.): Encyclopedia of aging (2nd ed.). New York: Springer, 1995.

  158. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Positive and negative valence within the five-factor model. Journal of Research in Personality 29: 443-460, 1995.

  159. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T.: Trait explanations in personality psychology. European Journal of Personality 9: 231-252, 1995.

  160. Trull T.J., Useda J.D., Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R.: Comparison of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5), the NEO-PI, and NEO-PI--R. Psychological Assessment 7: 508-516, 1995.

  161. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Mood and personality in adulthood. In: C. Malatesta-Magai, and S. McFadden (Eds.): Handbook of emotion, aging and the lifecourse. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1996: 369-383.

  162. Costa P.T., Jr., Somerfield M.R., and McCrae R.R.: Personality and coping: A reconceptualization. In: M. Zeidner, and N.M. Endler (Eds.): Handbook of coping. New York: Wiley, 1996: 44-61.

  163. McCrae R.R.: Integrating the levels of personality. Psychological Inquiry 7: 353-356, 1996.

  164. McCrae R.R.: Social consequences of experiential openness. Psychological Bulletin 120: 323-337, 1996.

  165. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: Toward a new generation of personality theories: Theoretical contexts for the five-factor model. In: J.S. Wiggins (Ed.): The five-factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives. New York: Guilford, 1996: 51-87.

  166. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr., and Yik M.S.M.: Universal aspects of chinese personality structure. In: M.H. Bond (Ed.): The handbook of Chinese psychology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1996: 189-207.

  167. McCrae R.R., Zonderman A.B., Costa P.T., Jr., and Bond M.H.: Evaluating replicability of factors in the Revised NEO Personality Inventory: Confirmatory factor analysis versus Procrustes rotation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70: 552-566, 1996.

  168. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Longitudinal stability of adult personality. In: R. Hogan, J.A. Johnson, and S.R. Briggs (Eds.): Handbook of personality psychology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997: 269-290.

  169. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Stability and change in personality assessment: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory in the Year 2000. Journal of Personality Assessment 68: 86-94, 1997.

  170. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: Conceptions and correlates of Openness to Experience. In: R. Hogan, J.A. Johnson, and S.R. Briggs (Eds.): Handbook of personality psychology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997: 825-847.

  171. McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist 52: 509-516, 1997.

  172. McCrae R.R., and Stone S.V.: Personality. In: A. Baum, C. McManus, S. Newman, J. Weinman, and R. West (Eds.): Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997: 29-34.

  173. Archer RP, Fontaine J, & McCrae RR: The effects of two MMPI-2 validity scales on basic scale relations to external criteria. Journal of Personality Assessment : 70: 87-102, 1998.

  174. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Trait theories of personality. In: D.F. Barone, M. Hersen, and V.B. VanHasselt (Eds.): Advanced personality. New York: Plenum, 1998: 103-121.

  175. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: Six approaches to the explication of facet-level traits: Examples from Conscientiousness. European Journal of Personality 12:117-134, 1998.

  176. Costa P.T., Jr., Yang J., and McCrae RR: Aging and personality traits: Generalizations and clinical implications. In: IH Nordhus, GR VandenBos, P Fromhold, and S Berg (Eds.), Clinical Geropsychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1998: 33-48.

  177. Jang K.L., McCrae R.R., Angleitner A., Riemann R., and Livesley W.J.: Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:1556-1565, 1998.

  178. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr., Del Pilar G.H., Rolland J.P., and Parker W.D.: Cross-cultural assessment of the five-factor model: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 29: 171-188, 1998.

  179. McCrae R.R., Stone S.V., Fagan P.J., and Costa P.T., Jr.: Identifying causes of disagreement between self-reports and spouse ratings of personality. Journal of Personality 66: 285-313, 1998.

  180. McCrae R.R., Yik M.S.M., Trapnell P.T., Bond M.H., and Paulhus D.L.: Interpreting personality profiles across cultures: Bilingual, acculturation and peer ratings studies of Chinese undergraduates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74: 1041-1055, 1998.

  181. Sneed C.D., McCrae R.R., and Funder D.C.: Lay conceptions of the five-factor model and its indicators. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24: 115-126, 1998.

  182. Yang J., McCrae R.R., and Costa P.T., Jr.: Adult age diferences in personality traits in the United States and the People's Republic of China. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 53B: P375-P383, 1998.

  183. Jefferson T., Jr., Herbst J.H., and McCrae R.R.: Associations between birth order and personality traits: Evidence from self-reports and observer ratings. Journal of Research in Personality 32: 498-509, 1998.

  184. Loehlin J.C., McCrae R.R., Costa P.T.,Jr., and John O.P.: Heritabilities of common and measure-specific components of the Big Five personality factors. Journal of Research in Personality 32: 431-453, 1998.

  185. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R., and Siegler I.C.: Continuity and change over the adult life cycle: Personality and personality disorders. In: C.R. Cloninger (Ed.): Personality and psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1999: 129-153.

  186. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr., Lima M.P., Simoes A., Ostendorf F., Angleitner A., Marusic I., Bratko, D., Caprara G.V., Barbaranelli C., Chae J.H., and Piedmont R.L.: Age differences in personality across the adult lifespan: Parallels in five cultures. Developmental Psychology 35: 466-477, 1999.

  187. McCrae RR: Consistency of creativity across the lifespan. In: MA Runco and S Pritzker (Eds.): Encyclopedia of creativity. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999: 361-366.

  188. McCrae R.R. and Costa P.T., Jr.: A Five-Factor Theory of personality. In: L.A. Pervin and O.P. John (Eds.): Handbook of personality psychology. New York: Guilford, 1999: 139-153.

  189. Bagby R.M., Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R., Livesley W.J., Kennedy S.H., Levitan R.D., Levitt A.J., Joffe R.T., Young L.T.: Replicating the Five-Factor Model of personality in a psychiatric sample. Personality and Individual Differences 27: 1135-1139, 1999.

  190. Yang J., McCrae R.R., Costa P.T. Jr., Dai X., Yao S., Cai T., Gao B.: Cross-cultural personality assessment in psychiatric populations: The NEO-PI-R in the People's Republic of China. Psychological Assessment 11: 359-368, 1999.

  191. McCrae R.R.: Mainstream personality psychology and the study of religion. Journal of Personality 67: 1209-1218, 1999.

  192. Costa P.T., Jr., and McCrae R.R.: NEO Personality Inventory. In: AE Kazdin (Ed.): Encyclopedia of psychology. Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 407-409, 2000.

  193. Costa P.T., Jr. and McCrae R.R.: Contemporary personality psychology. In: C.E. Coffey and J.L. Cummings (Eds.): Textbook of geriatric neuropsychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 2000: 453-462.

  194. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R., Martin T.A., Oryol V.E., Senin I.G., Rukavishnikov A.A., Shimonaka Y., Nakazata K., Gondo Y., Takayama M., Allik J., Kallasmaa T., and Realo A.: Personality development from adolescence through adulthood: Further cross-cultural comparisons of age differences. In V.J. Molfese and D. Molfese (Eds.): Temperament and personality development across the life span. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 2000: 235-252.

  195. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T. Jr., Ostendorf F., Angleitner A., Hrebrikova M., Avia M.D., Sanz J., Sanchez-Bernardos M.L., Kusdil M.E., Woodfield R., Saunders P.T., Smith, P.B.: Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and lifespan development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78: 173-186, 2000.

  196. Piedmont R.L., McCrae R.R., Riemann R., Angleitner A.: On the invalidity of validity scales: Evidence from self-reports and observer ratings in volunteer samples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78: 582-593, 2000.

  197. McCrae R.R.: Personality traits and culture: New perspectives on some classic issues [Special Issue]. American Behavioral Scientist 44(1), 2000.

  198. McCrae R.R.: Introduction; Trait psychology and the revival of personality-and-culture studies. American Behavioral Scientist 44: 7-9; 10-31, 2000.

  199. Kallasmaa T., Allik J., Realo A., McCrae R.R.: The Estonian version of the NEO-PI-R: An examination of universal and culture-specific aspects of the Five-Factor Model. European Journal of Personality 14: 265-278, 2000.

  200. McCrae R.R.: Beginning again on personality and culture [Review of Personality and person perception across cultures]. Contemporary Psychology 45: 38-40, 2000.

  201. Somerfield M.R., McCrae R.R.: Stress and coping research: Methodological challenges, theoretical advances, and clinical applications. American Psychologist, 55: 620-625, 2000.

  202. Herbst J.H., Zonderman A.B., McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr.: Do the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory map a simple genetic architecture? Evidence from molecular genetics and factor analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157: 1285-1290, 2000.

  203. McCrae R.R.: Emotional intelligence from the perspective of the Five-Factor Model. In: R. Bar-On and J.D.A. Parker (Eds.): The handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000: 263-276.

  204. Yang J., McCrae R.R., Costa P.T. Jr., Yao S., Dai X., Cai T., Gao B.: The cross-cultural generalizability of Axis-II constructs: An evaluation of two personality disorder assessment instruments in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14(3): 249-263, 2000.

  205. Trobst K.K., Wiggins J.S., Costa P.T. Jr., Herbst J.H., McCrae R.R., Masters H.L., III: Personality psychology and problem behaviors: HIV risk and the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Personality, 68(6): 1233-1252, 2000.

  206. Costa P.T., McCrae R.R.: Innovations in assessment using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory: Introduction to the Special Issue. Assessment, 7: 323-325, 2000.

  207. Costa P.T., Jr., Herbst J.H., McCrae R.R., Siegler I.C.: Personality at midlife: Stability, intrinsic maturation, and response to life events. Assessment, 7: 367-380, 2000.

  208. Herbst J.H., McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr., Feaganes J.R., Siegler I.C.: Self-perceptions of stability and change in personality at midlife: The UNC Alumni Heart Study. Assessment, 7: 381-390, 2000.

  209. McCrae R.R., Yang J., Costa P.T. Jr., Dai X., Yao S., Cai T., Gao B.: Personality profiles and the prediction of categorical personality disorders. Journal of Personality, 69: 155-174, 2001.

  210. Costa P.T., Jr. and McCrae R.R.: A theoretical context for adult temperament. In: T.D. Wachs and G.A. Kohnstamm (Eds.): Temperament in context. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 2001: 1-21.

  211. McCrae R.R.: Five years of progress: A reply to Block. Journal of Research in Personality, 35: 108-113, 2001.

  212. McCrae R.R.: Traits through time. Psychological Inquiry, 12: 85-87, 2001.

  213. McCrae R.R., Jang K.L., Livesley W.J., Riemann R., Angleitner A.: Sources of structure: Genetic, environmental, and artifactual influences on the covariance of personality traits. Journal of Personality, 69: 511-535, 2001.

  214. McCrae R.R., Herbst J.H., Costa P.T., Jr.: Effects of acquiescence on personality factor structures. In: R. Riemann, F. Ostendorf, and F. Spinath (Eds.): Personality and temperament: Genetics, evolution, and structure. Berlin: Pabst Science Publishers, 2001: 217-231.

  215. McCrae R.R.: Trait psychology and culture: Exploring intercultural comparisons. Journal of Personality, 69: 819-846, 2001.

  216. McCrae R.R.: Facts and Interpretations of Personality Trait Stability: A Reply to Quackenbush. Theory & Psychology, 11: 841-848, 2001.

  217. Costa P.T., Jr., Terracciano A., McCrae R.R.: Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81: 322-331, 2001.

  218. Herbst J.H., Zonderman, A.B., McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr.: Dr. Herbst and colleagues reply [Letter to the Editor]. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158: 1339-1340, 2001.

  219. Yang J., Dai X., Yao S., Cai T., Gao B., McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr.: Personality disorders and the Five-Factor Model of personality in Chinese psychiatric patients. In: P.T. Costa Jr. and T.A. Widiger (Eds.): Personality disorders and the Five-Factor Model of personality (2nd ed). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 215-221, 2002.

  220. Widiger T.A., Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R.: Proposal for Axis II: Diagnosing personality disorders using the Five-Factor Model. In: P.T. Costa Jr. and T.A. Widiger (Eds.): Personality disorders and the Five-Factor Model of personality (2nd ed). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 431-456, 2002.

  221. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R.: Looking backward: Changes in the mean levels of personality traits from 80 to 12. In D. Cervone and W. Mischel (Eds.): Advances in personality science. New York: Guilford, 2002: 219-237.

  222. McCrae R.R., Allik J.: Introduction. In R.R. McCrae and J. Allik (Eds.): The Five-Factor Model across cultures. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002, 1-5, 127-128, 279.

  223. McCrae R.R.: NEO-PI-R data from 36 cultures: Further intercultural comparisons. In R.R. McCrae and J. Allik (Eds.): The Five-Factor Model across cultures. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002, 105-126.

  224. Allik J., McCrae R.R.: A Five-Factor Theory perspective. In R.R. McCrae and J. Allik (Eds.): The Five-Factor Model across cultures. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002, 303-321.

  225. Piedmont R.L., Bain E., McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr.: The applicability of the Five-Factor Model in a sub-Saharan culture: The NEO-PI-R in Shona. In R.R. McCrae and J. Allik (Eds.): The Five-Factor Model across cultures. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002, 105-126.

  226. McCrae R.R., Allik J. (Eds.): The Five-Factor Model across cultures. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002.

  227. Costa P.T. Jr., Herbst J.H., McCrae R.R., Samuels J., Ozer D.J.: The replicability and utility of three personality types. European Journal of Personality, 16: S73-S87, 2002.

  228. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R., Jonsson F.H.: Validity and utility of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory: Examples from Europe. In B. DeRaad and M. Perugini (Eds.): Big Five Assessment. Gottingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002: 61-77.

  229. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T. Jr., Terracciano A., Parker W.D., Mills C.J., De Fruyt F., Mervielde I.: Personality trait development from age 12 to age 18: longitudinal, cross-sectional, and cross-cultural analyses. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 83(6): 1456-1468, 2002.

  230. Terracciano A., McCrae R.R., Costa P.T.: Factorial and construct valididty of the Italian Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Eur. J. Psychol. Assess. 19(2): 131-141, 2003.

  231. Terracciano A., McCrae R.R., Hagemann D., Costa P.T. Jr.: Individual difference variables, affective differentiation, and the structures of affect. J. Pers. 71(5): 669-703, 2003.

  232. McCrae R.R.: Expansion, integration, and omission: some thoughts on a new agenda. J. Gerontol. B Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci. 58(6): P307-P308; author reply P311-P312, 2003.

  233. De Fruyt F., McCrae R.R., Szirmak Z., Nagy J.: The Five-factor Personality Inventory as a measure of the Five-factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R. Assessment. 11(3): 207-215, 2004.

  234. Allik J., McCrae R.R.: Escapable conclusions: Toomela (2003) and the universality of trait structure. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 87(2): 261-265, 2004.

  235. McCrae R.R.: Human nature and culture: a trait perspective. J. Res. Pers. 38(1): 3-14, 2004.

  236. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T.: A contemplated revision of the NEO five-factor inventory. Pers. Indiv. Differ. 36(3): 587-596, 2004.

  237. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T. Jr., Hrebickova M., Urbanek T., Martin T.A., Oryol V.E., Rukavishnikov A.A., Senin I.G.: Age differences in personality traits across cultures: self-report and observer perspectives. Eur. J. Pers. 18: 143-157, 2004.

  238. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T. Jr., Martin T.A., Oryol V.E., Rukavishnikov A.A., Senin I.G., Hrebickova M., Urbanek T.: Consensual validation of personality traits across cultures. J. Res. Pers. 38: 179-201, 2004.

  239. Allik J., McCrae R.R.: Toward a geography of personality traits: Patterns of profiles across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 35: 13-28, 2004.

  240. Hofstede G., McCrae R.R.: Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross-Cultural Research 38: 52-88, 2004.

  241. Rossier J., Dahourou D., McCrae R.R.: Structural and mean level analyses of the Five-Factor Model and locus of control: Further evidence from Africa. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36: 227-246, 2005.

  242. Weiss A., Costa P.T., Jr., Karuza J., Duberstein P.R., Friedman B., McCrae R.R.: Cross-sectional age differences in personality among Medicare recipients aged 65 to 100. Psychology and Aging, 20: 182-185, 2005.

  243. McCrae R.R., Costa P.T., Jr., Martin T.A.: The NEO-PI-3: A more readable Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 84: 261-270, 2005.

  244. McCrae R.R., Terracciano A., and 78 Members of the Personality Profiles of Cultures Project: Universal features of personality traits from the observer's perspective: Data from 50 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88: 547-561, 2005.

  245. McCrae R.R., Loeckenhoff, C.E., Costa P.T., Jr.: A step toward DSM-V: Cataloging personality-related problems in living. European Journal of Personality, 19: 269-286, 2005.

  246. Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R R. A Five-Factor Theory perspective on the Rorschach. Rorschachiana, 27, 76-96, 2005.

  247. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. A Five-Factor Model perspective on personality disorders. In S. Strack (Ed.), Handbook of Personology and Psychopathology pp. 257-270. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

  248. McCrae, R.R., Terracciano, A., & 79 Members of the Personality Profiles of Cultures Project. Personality profiles of cultures: Aggregate personality traits. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 407-425. 2005.

  249. Terracciano, A., McCrae, R.R., Brant, L.J., & Costa, P.T., Jr. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of NEO-PI-R scales in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Psychology and Aging, 20, 493-506, 2005.

  250. McCrae, R.R., Martin, T.A., & Costa, P.T., Jr. Age trends and age norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 in adolescents and adults. Assessment, 12, 363-373, 2005.

  251. Costa, P.T., Jr., Bagby, R.M., Herbst, J.H., & McCrae, R.R. Personality self-reports are concurrently reliable and valid during acute depressive episodes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 89, 45-55, 2005.

  252. Costa, P.T., Jr., Patriciu, N.S., & McCrae, R.R. Lessons from longitudinal studies for new approaches to the DSM-V: The FFM and FFT. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 533-539, 2005.

  253. Terracciano, A., Abdel-Khalek, A.M., Ádám, N., Adamovová, L., Ahn, C.-k., Ahn, H.-n., Alansari, B.M., Alcalay, L., Allik, J., Angleitner, A., Avia, M.D., Ayearst, L.E., Barbaranelli, C., Beer, A., Borg-Cunen, M.A., Bratko, D., Brunner-Sciarra, M., Budzinski, L., Camart, N., Dahourou, D., De Fruyt, F., de Lima, M.P., del Pilar, G.E.H., Diener, E., Falzon, R., Fernando, K., Ficková, E., Fischer, R., Flores-Mendoza, C., Ghayur, M.A., Gülgöz, S., Hagberg, B., Halberstadt, J., Halim, M.S., Hebíková, M., Humrichouse, J., Jensen, H.H., Jocic, D. D., Jónsson, F.H., Khoury, B., Klinkosz, W., Kneevi, G., Lauri, M.A., Leibovich, N., Martin, T.A., Marušic, I., Mastor, K.A., Matsumoto, D., McRorie, M., Meshcheriakov, B., Mortensen, E.L., Munyae, M., Nagy, J., Nakazato, K., Nansubuga, F., Oishi, S., Ojedokun, A. O., Ostendorf, F., Paulhus, D.L., Pelevin, S., Petot, J.-M., Podobnik, N., Porrata, J.L., Pramila, V.S., Prentice, G., Realo, A., Reátegui, N., Rolland, J.-P., Rossier, J., Ruch, W., Rus, V.S., Sánchez-Bernardos, M.L., Schmidt, V., Sciculna-Calleja, S., Sekowski, A., Shakespeare-Finch, J., Shimonaka, Y., Simonetti, F., Sineshaw, T., Siuta, J., Smith, P.B., Trapnell, P.D., Trobst, K.K., Wang, L., Yik, M., Zupani, A., & McCrae, R.R. National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures. Science, 310, 96-100, 2005.

  254. Weiss, A., Costa, P.T., Jr., Karuza, J., Duberstein, P.R., Friedman, B., & McCrae, R.R. Cross-sectional age differences in personality among Medicare recipients aged 65 to 100. Psychology and Aging, 20, 182-185, 2005.

  255. Terracciano, A., Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.R. Personality plasticity after age 30. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32: 999-1009, 2005.

  256. McCrae R.R.: Personality structure. In: V.J. Derlega, B.A. Winstead, and W.H. Jones (Eds.): Personality: Contemporary Theory and Research. pp. 192-216. (3rd ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Group, 2005.

  257. McCrae, R.R., Terracciano, A., Costa, P.T., Jr., & Ozer, D.J. Person-factors in the California Adult Q-Set: Closing the door on personality trait types?; From types to typological thinking: A reply to Asendorpf. European Journal of Personality, 20, 29-44; 49-51, 2006.

  258. McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T., Jr. Cross-cultural perspectives on adult personality trait development. In D. Mroczek & T. Little (Eds.), Handbook of Personality Development pp. 129-145. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006.

  259. Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.R. Age changes in personality and their origins: Comment on Roberts, Walton, & Viechtbauer. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 26-28., 2006.

  260. Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R.R. How to measure stereotypes? Response. Science, 311, 777-779, 2006.

  261. Terracciano, A., McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T., Jr. Longitudinal trajectories in Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey data: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 61B, P108-P116, 2006.

  262. McCrae R.R.: What is personality? In: R. Colom and C. Flores-Mendoza (Eds.), Introduction to the Psychology of Individual Differences. pp. 2303-2318. Puerto Alegre, Brazil: ArtMed Publishers, 2006.

  263. Costa P.T., Jr., McCrae R.R.: Trait and factor theories. In: J.C. Thomas and D.L. Segal A. (Eds.), Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology, Vol. 1. pp. 96-114. New York: Wiley, 2006.

  264. McCrae R.R.: Psychopathology from the perspective of the Five-Factor Model. In: S. Strack (Ed.): Differentiating Normal and Abnormal Personality. pp. 51-64. New York: Springer, 2006.

  265. McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T., Jr. Perspectives de la théorie des Cinq Facteurs: Traits et Culture [A Five-Factor Theory perspective on traits and culture]. Psychologie Française, 51: 227-244, 2006.

  266. Terracciano, A, and McCrae, R.R.: Cross-cultural studies of personality traits and their relevance to psychiatry. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 15: 176-184, 2006.

  267. McCrae, R.R., and Terracciano, A.: National character and personality. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15: 156-161, 2006.

  268. McCrae R.R., Terracciano A., Khoury B.: Dolce far niente: The positive psychology of personality stability and invariance. In: A. Ong and M. van Dulmen (Eds.), Handbook of Methods in Positive Psychology. pp. 176-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

  269. Stone S.V., McCrae R.R.: Personality and health. In S. Ayers, A. Baum, C. McManus, S. Newman, K. Wallston, J. Weinman, and R. West (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health and Medicine pp. 151-155.(2nd. ed.). Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

  270. McCrae, R.R., Costa, P.T., Jr., Martin, T.A., Oryol, V.E., Senin, I.G., and O'Cleirigh, C. Personality correlates of HIV stigmatization in Russia and the United States. Journal of Research in Personality, 41: 190-196, 2007.

  271. McCrae, R.R., and Terracciano, A.: The Five-Factor Model and its correlates in individuals and cultures. In: F.J.R. van de Vijver, D.A. van Hemert, and Y. Poortinga (Eds.), Individuals and cultures in multi-level analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 247-281, 2007.

  272. Costa, P.T., Jr., Terracciano, A., Uda, M., Vacca, L., Mameli, C., Pilia, G., Zonderman, A.B., Lakatta, E., Schlessinger, D., and McCrae, R.R.: Personality traits in Sardinia: Testing founder population effects on trait means and variances. Behavior Genetics, Erlbaum, 247-281, 2007.

  273. Schmitt, D., Allik, J., McCrae, R.R., Benet-Martínez, Alcalay, L, Ault, L., et al.: The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38: 173-212, 2007.

  274. McCrae, R.R., and Costa, P.T., Jr.: Brief versions of the NEO-PI-3. Journal of Individual Differences, 28: 116-128, 2007.

  275. McCrae, R.R.: Aesthetic chills as a universal marker of Openness to Experience. Motivation and Emotion, 31: 5-11. 2007.

  276. Terracciano, A., and McCrae, R. R.: Perceptions of Americans and the Iraq invasion: Implications for understanding national character stereotypes. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38:695-710, 2007.

  277. McCrae, R.R., Terracciano, A., Realo, A., and Allik, J.: Climatic warmth and national wealth: Some culture-level determinants of national character stereotypes; Response: On the validity of culture-level personality and stereotype scores. European Journal of Personality, 21, 953-976; 987-991, 2007.

  278. McCrae, R.R., and Sutin, A.R.: New frontiers for the Five-Factor Model: A preview of the literature. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 1-18: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00021.x, 2007.

  279. McCrae, R.R.: Do we know enough to infer the evolutionary origins of individual differences? European Journal of Personality, 21, 616-618, 2007.

  280. Costa, P.T., Jr., Rolland, J.-P., De Fruyt, F., De Clercq, B., & McCrae, R.R. La modèle á Cinq Facteurs et l'utilisation du NEO-PI-R en practique psychiatrique [The Five-Factor Model and the use of the NEO-PI-R in psychiatric practice]. In J. D. Guelfi & F. Rouillon (Eds.), Psychiatrie de l'adulte et de l'adolescent. Paris, France: Masson Éditeur, in press.

  281. McCrae, R.R. Individual differences. In R. Baumeister & K. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, in press.

  282. McCrae, R.R. A note on some measures of profile agreement. Journal of Personality Assessment, in press.

  283. Costa, P.T., Jr., and McCrae, R.R.: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). In: G.J. Boyle, G. Matthews, and D.H. Saklofske (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory and testing. London: Sage Publications, in press.

  284. McCrae, R.R., and Costa, P.T., Jr.: Empirical and theoretical status of the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. In: G.J. Boyle, G. Matthews, and D.H. Saklofske (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory and testing. London: Sage Publications, in press.

  285. McCrae, R.R.: Individual differences. In: R. Baumeister and K. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, in press.

  286. McCrae, R.R., and Costa, P.T., Jr.: The Five-Factor Theory of personality. In: O.P. John, R.W. Robins, and L.A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford, in press.

  287. Costa, P.T., Jr., and McCrae, R.R.: The NEO Inventories. In: R. P. Archer and S.R. Smith (Eds.), A guide to personality assessment: Evaluation, application, and integration. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, in press.

  288. McCrae, R. R.: The Five-Factor Model of personality traits: Consensus and controversy. In: P. Corr and G. Matthews (Eds.), The Cambridge University Press handbook of personality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in press.

  289. McCrae, R.R., and Löckenhoff, C. E.:. Self-regulation and the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), The handbook of self-regulation and personality. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing, in press.

  290. McCrae, R.R., and Sutin, A.R.: Openness to Experience and its social consequences. In M.R. Leary and R.H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior. New York: Guilford, in press.

  291. Costa, P.T., Jr., McCrae, R.R., and Martin, T.A.: Incipient adult personality: The NEO-PI-3 in Middle School-aged children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, in press.

  292. Löckenhoff, C.E., Terracciano, A., Bienvenu, O J., Patriciu, N.S., Nestadt, G., McCrae, R.R., Eaton, W.W., and Costa, P.T., Jr.: Ethnicity, education, and the temporal stability of personality traits in the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. Journal of Research in Personality, in press.

  293. McCrae, R.R., Martin, T.A., Hrebickova, M., Urbanek, T., Boomsma, D.I., Willemsen, G., and Costa, P.T., Jr.: Personality trait similarity between spouses in four cultures. Journal of Personality, in press.

  294. McCrae, R.R., Terracciano, A., Realo, A., and Allik, J.: Interpreting GLOBE Societal Practices scales. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, in press.

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